MARCEL DUCHAMP IN SWEDEN
strömningar, fransk surrealism, spektrums förlag
The very first time Marcel
Duchamp appears in a Swedish publication is in "nya strömningar, fransk
surrealism" published by spektrum press 1933. It is an anthology of poems
by French surrealistic poets translated from French by the Swedish poet
Gunnar Ekelöf and with an introduction by him. (12) (13)
strömningar, spektrum förlag, 1933.
||13. Marcel Duchamp, surrealistiskt
Marcel Duchamp appears two times
in this book. First, he is mentioned in a note on page 47. That note
refers to a critique about the film history written by Salvador Dali where
he comments René Clair’s film Entr´Acte. "...though René Clair, it really
resumes the concepts of Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray and Francis
Duchamp’s second appearance is about Benjamin Péret’s
poem "Föratt fördriva tiden", (While away the Time), page 53. That poem is
illustrated with one of Duchamp’s kinetic works. At the time a very
advanced choice of illustration, and the Swedish caption reads "Marcel
Duchamp, surrealistiskt föremĺl" followed by the pun in French "rose
selavy et moi, nous estimons les ecchymoses des esquimaux aux mots
exquis." But the correct title is "Rotary Demisphere (Precision Optics)",
Paris 1925.) S 409. This piece was exhibited in Stockholm 1961 at
"Rörelse i konsten" (Art in motion). According to Schwarz, this object
belongs to Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York since
Litterära Magasin, Volume 3, no. 3
In BLM 1934 Volume 3, no. 3 page
34-50 (14) Gunnar Ekelöf published his article "Frĺn Dadaism till
Surrealism". He introduces Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia, and Andre
Breton on page 36: "Of extremely importance for the continuing development
of the movement (Dada) became however three ally which planted it in
Paris. They were Francis Picabia and Marcel Duchamp, both astounding word
jugglers experimenting with artistic values, and a group of young writers
around the magazine ‘Literature’ published by Andre
no. 3 1934. Gunnar Ekelöf, "Frĺn dadaism till
Ekelöf also mentions that
Duchamp and Picabia had access to the following magazines; Duchamp’s
"Wrong-Wrong", (Rongwrong, 1917), S 348, "The Blind Man", (The Blind Man
No. 1: Independents´Number 1917), S 346, (The Blind Man No. 2: P.B.T.
1917), S 347 and Picabia’s "291", (1915) and "391", (1920).
even points out "Fountain", (1917), S 345, "... which under the pseudonym
R. Mutt was send in to the Independents Show in New York, which originates
from someone in the circle. Since the Fountain simply was an urinal and it
was therefore rejected".
Two years later, Duchamp appears
again in Vilh. Bjerke-Petersen’s magazine "konkretion" no. 5-6, 1936
published in Copenhagen, Oslo and Stockholm. This magazine is mainly
written in Danish. (15)
This is the last and a special double-issue
about "Surrealism in Paris". Duchamp’s contribution is an illustration to
the Belgian poet Gisčle Prassino’s text "Den forfulgte unge pige", 1935.
The caption reads: "Marcel Duchamp: ‘Moustiques domestiques demistock‘.
Photo Man Ray". In Schwarz, the title is (Monte Carlo Bond, Paris 1924.) S
406. In Schwarz it is called "imitated rectified readymade". Duchamp did
less then eight and of the planed 30 copies of version a. There are also a
version b, 1938 and a version c, 1941.
konkretion, no. 5-6 double-issue
Next time Duchamp appears in
Sweden is twelve years later. It is in the first issue of the exclusive
magazine "Prisma" no. 1, 1948. He is mentioned in the section called
"Experimentalfältet" (The field of experiments), page 99 where Ebbe
Neergaard writes about "French-American-German experimental film" in New
York among other films "Dreams That Money Can Buy". (16) This film
consists of six parts compiled by Hans Richter. The contributing artists
are Fernand Léger, Max Ernst, Man Ray, Alexander Calder, and Marcel
Duchamp. The article is illustrated with five photographs. Illustration
no. 5 shows a detail of Duchamp’s part. It is from his scandal painting
"Nude descending a staircase". S 342.
This film was also shown May
21, 1958 at Moderna Museet’s film studio, Stockholm during "Apropĺ
Eggeling, Avant-Garde-Film". (17)
In Konstrevy’s no. 3, 1948
Haavard Rostrup writes about Marcel Duchamp’s brother Jacques Villon. (18)
Where he makes a comment about Marcel Duchampas follows, "Jacques Villon’s
name is really
Gaston Duchamp and brother to the cubist sculptor
Raymond Duchamp-Villon, who died already in 1918, and to the painter
Marcel Duchamp. First a cubist painter later one of the founder of
Dadaism, but since 1920 turned his back to the art and devoted himself to
Konstrevy no. 3 1948.|
Konstrevy no. 4-5
In Konstrevy’s double issue no.
4-5, 1950 Gabrielle Buffet-Picabia contributes with her article "Nĺgra
minnen frĺn den abstrakta konstens första ĺr" (Some memories from the
first years of abstract art). (19)
Konstrevy no. 4-5 1950.|
She writes: "In 1910 I got
acquainted with the brothers Duchamps-the oldest Raymond Duchamps, and the
nowadays lively appreciated, completely personal painter Jacques Villon
yet only carefully spectators to the fast development of painting which
seemed to be the case. But the youngest, Marcel Duchamp, showed already
distinctive qualifications to be as incontrovertible as he was: one of the
strangest spirits of his time and the one who has the deepest influence to
the abstract art as the growth of the youngest poetry.
Duchamp was among the young circle that was eager to fight. And the one,
with his work–consisting of a few paintings-his opinions and way of
living, but with his own intuition and intelligence, without effort and
affection, reached beyond the systematic destruction of the traditional
standards of art, which up till now were reverential accepted theories.
Thus he appears among other things as one of the predecessors of
surrealism; but the peak of the picturesque anarchism was first achieved
When we first met Duchamp, he was sincerely engaged
with an issue that was developed by the Italian Futurism- i.e. the
possibility to express movement within the frame of static painting. One
of his earliest and most well known canvases ‘Nu descendant au escalier’
shows an almost cinematographic decomposition of movement within the
schedule of a skeleton. Duchamp’s acquaintance with Picabia was of great
importance to both of them."
Further down she writes: "In 1910, at
rue Trouchet was an exhibition with Picasso, Duchamp and Picabia, showing
paintings already with a striking boldness, but still far from the
character they later achieved." She also writes about Salon d’Independent
1912. And further: "The same year there was the great exposition "La
Section d’Or" with works by , Duchamp, Gris, Delaunay and Picabia. Finally
in January 1913 in New York was a countless audience of genuine American
characters invited to giant exhibition in order to give them knowledge
about the abstract art. I was attending the opening, which occurred at
night in huge premises with elegant guests.
It reminds me that a
man in a white tie opened it. And up on a rostrum he explained: ‘Ladies
and gentlemen, this exhibition which you can see now, which covers such as
such big surfaces of the walls, count such as such many canvases and have
cost us such as such much to arrange. It is nowyour task to learn and to
understand modern art, and that’s that.’ Without finding any understanding
the new art had conquered its place in the intellectual life, but also in
another field: The Speculation, which since that time have tried and often
succeeded to involve even the art into its unceasing and humiliating race
similar to the value of stocks."
This article illustrated with 3
works by Duchamp and Picabia.
Marcel Duchamp: "Why Not sneeze?" 1921.
Photo: R. Selavy. A Semi-Readymade, New York 1921. S 391. According to
Schwarz, the original is at Philadelphia Museum of Art, (PMA). One replica
made by Ulf Linde in 1963 for Duchamp’s exhibition at Galerie Eva af
Burén, now at Moderna Museet, (MMS), Stockholm, which was signed and dated
by Duchamp in Milan 1964.
Marcel Duchamp: "Elevage de poussičre".
Photo: Man Ray 1920. (Bred Readymade. [Dust Breeding]), S 382. According
to Schwarz, both Man Ray and Marcel Duchamp took this photograph. Now it
belongs to the Jedermann Collection N.A.
Marcel Duchamp: "Nu
descendant un Escalier", 1912. (Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2), S 242.
It is now at the PMA. They also have Duchamp’s first version. S
The chief editor of Konstrevy 1950 was Mrs Ingrid
Rydbeck-Zuhr. One must consider her choice of illustrations with such
extreme works by Duchamp in1950 as very advanced and
Konstperspektiv no. 4
In no. 4/1951 Gunnar Hellman
writes an article: "Variationer pĺ ett gammalt tema" (Variations on an old
theme), where he quote Oscar Reutersvärd’s catalogue text from the
exhibition Neo-Plastic Art, Galerie Samlaren, Stockholm 1951. Hellman’s
article is illustrated with Duchamp’s ‘Nu descendant un Escalier" 1912,
(Nude Descending a Staircase), S 242, with following caption; "In 1912 the
Frenchman Marcel Duchamp did this nude model, descending a staircase." Why
Hellman used Duchamp’s painting as an illustration, I don’t know because
it was never shown at the exhibition according to that catalogue.
Konstperspektiv no. 4 1951.|
In Konstrevy no. 2/1952 you can
find Gabrielle Buffet-Picabia’s article "I dadaismens tid" (In the time of
Dadaism) where she tells us about Duchamp’sstay in New York.
Konstrevy no. 2 1952.|
"The Dadaism existed before it got a
name", she writes.
She describes her ten years experience of the
Dada-epoch and divides it into three parts. The first Dada-epoch in New
York she calls (Pré-Dada). The second, the real Dada-epoch, took place in
Zurich and the third Dada-period was in Paris.
She also describes
the Dadaism in Germany with Max Ernst and Hans Richter in Düsseldorf,
Huelsenbeck in Berlin, Schwitters in Cologne. The latter she characterises
as the complete Dadaist, how he invented his own words and how he built
his own house and organised his household. Laconically she states that
Dada was born 1917.
She also tells the story about the conception
of Dada, which many Dadaists have claimed to coin. But it can be referred
to a happy circumstance, that the Larousse dictionary by chance opened on
the page where the word Dada was listed, when Hugo Ball and Hulsenbeck
looked for a sensational name for a dance sketch, which Emmy Hennings,
Hugo Ball’s wife, should perform at Cabaret Voltaire.
continues: "Picabia and Duchamp, which were the first newsmakers of the
period tore from 1910 all bonds with the classicism as the four Gospels.
Though they were each other’s opponents both in reactions and way of
working, there was a strange competition in order to reach destructive and
paradoxical, blasphemously and inhuman suggestions.
Apollinaire often took part in these attempts of demoralisation, which
also were an attack of witticism, puns, and jokes, and even easy replaced
the formal values of beauty with personal dynamism and suggestive,
inventive and individual forces. This playful search into unknown
dimensions and into the unexplored regions of a being, this spirit of
invention, which never have come back, it seems to me, were containing all
the seeds, which later become the Dadaism, and even that, which since then
have grown on to the new ramifications."...
..."For his personal
use Duchamp come to create a mechanical world of fantasy, consequent and
logical, applied to a sentimental gearwheel deed, specifying one necessary
text in order to understand the painting as ‘la Marié mise ŕ nu par ses
célibataires męmes´." S 404.
And further "In this art environment
Duchamp received a popularity, which he got because of the lasting success
with his first exhibited work in the United States: ‘Nu descendant un
escalier’. Between two whiskies and two puns he yet demonstrates an
attitude to distance from everything even from himself; his lacking
interest in human standards is by the way not the least reason that the
pleasant curiosity he is subject to in the admiring milieu.
declares that he is going to end all artistic production and he keeps his
word. If he still takes part in any artistic manifestations, he does it in
order to create a scandal... For example, he shows at the New York
Independents Show one Ready-made called ‘Fountain’, which was nothing else
than a urinal. Later, not the least, sensational scandal: he puts a
moustache on Mona Lisa, by that symbolising his contempt for the fetishism
"…It is during this period when Cravan, boxer poet and
since 1912 publisher of a small avant-garde magazine ‘Maintenant’, made
his notorious lecture.
Cravan was asked to give an enlightening lecture
for a selected party. He was drunk and insulted in obscene terms his
audience of elegant ladies and started calmly to undress until two strong
policemen took him away with handcuffs on. He was immediately released by
Arensberg’s intervention and was lively congratulated by his friends
Picabia and Duchamp, which were the ones really responsible for the
This article is illustrated with works of Picabia,
Duchamp, Jean Arp, Sophie Tćuber Arp, and Kurt Schwitters.
Duchamp, "La Joconde". The correct title is "L.H.O.O.Q." according to S
369, and is a rectified Readymade made in Paris 1919. The original belongs
today to a private collector in Paris. Of this major work Schwarz
describes five replicas, and one of them are made in an edition of 38
numbered copies 1-35 are signed and 3 unnumbered copies.
certain confusion concerning this piece. (As for many of Duchamp’s works,
mainly about his Ready-mades, which are often said to have been exhibited
as original works.
(In my own essay, Konstmagasinet No. 14, 1991,
(22) I have listed which of his Ready-mades still exist in the original
version. His "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" S 306, is perhaps the best
example of the difficulties according to the provenance of his
Ready-mades. See Index)
Konstmagasinet no. 14 Nov. 1991, Leif Eriksson, |
Readymades: Original och kopior!"
One is about Picabia’s "La
Joconde". He wanted to use Duchamp’s work as a cover illustration for his
magazine "391", but Duchamp’s piece did not arrive in time. Picabia made
his own version but forget the goat’s beard. Duchamp later corrected
When we are talking about one of
Duchamp’s most famous readymade "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" there are a
lot of confusions. Even one of the best exegete of Duchamp’s works, Ulf
Linde does a huge mistake when he in his book "Spejare", Stockholm 1960,
stated: "1914 he fetched a Bottle Dryer (Bottlerack) from a cafe and
exhibited it at a salon as a sculpture."
Considering that Linde’s
book was the first penetrating analyses of Duchamp’s works in Sweden it
had an unfortunate impact, because that inaccurate description is still
Because, the original version, has never been
exhibited! That is the case for most of his ready-mades.
that Duchamp did not care if it was an "original" or a "replica" he
exhibited. His comment on different interpretations or replicas of his
works was "It amuses me". And that is convenient according to his attitude
toward art and the art world, which he protested against by choosing his
The original version of "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" is
lost. Duchamp bought his first at Bazaar de l’ Hotel de Ville in Paris
1914. That the original version disappeared is due to his sister Suzanne
who was asked by her brother to clean his apartment in Paris when he was
in New York. She simply cleaned it away.
(In a new book) (24)
"Affectt Marcel. The Selected Correspondence of Marcel Duchamp" by Francis
M. Naumann & Hector Obalk, Thames & Hudson 2000, you find two
letters written in January and October 1916 to Suzanne Duchamp where
Duchamp introduces his concept about his ready-mades.
Eriksson. Some versions of Bottlerack 1914-, 1987.
||24. Francis M. Naumann & Hector Obalk, Affectt._ Marcel
The Selected Correspondence of Marcel Duchamp, Thames & Hudson
"…Now, if you have been up to my
place, you will have seen, in the studio, a bicycle wheel and a bottle
rack. I bought this a ready-made sculpture. And I have a plan concerning
this so-called bottle-rack. Listen to this: here in N. Y., I have bought
various objects in the same taste and I treat them as
You know enough English to understand the meaning of
"ready-made" that I give these objects. I sign them and I think of an
inscription for them in English. I´ll give you a few examples. I have, for
example, a large snow shovel on which I have inscribed att the bottom: In
advance of the broken arm, French translation: En avance du bras cassé
Don’t tear your hair out of trying to understand this in the Romantic or
Impressionist or Cubist sense—it has nothing to do with all
Another "readymade" is called: Emergency in favour of twice,
possible French translation: Danger /Crise/ en faveur de 2 fois. This long
preamble just to say: take this bottle rack for yourself. I’m making it a
"readymade," remotely. You are to inscribe it at the bottom and on the
inside of the bottom circle, in small letters painted with a brush in oil,
silver white colour, with an inscription which I will give you herewith,
and then sign it, in the same handwriting, as follows:
Duchamp. [end of letter could very well be missing]"
In the letter
dated October 16, 1916, he returns to the subject and asks: "… Did you
write the inscription on the ready made? Do it. And send it to me (the
inscription) and let me know exactly what you did."
in his text "Apropos of Ready mades" 1961, describes how the term
Readymade arose. "In 1913 I got the good idea to attach a bicycle wheel to
kitchen chair and saw it turn." In New York 1915 he bought a snow shovel
and wrote on it: In advance of the Broken Arm. "It was about this time the
word readymade come to my mind to describe this form of
Duchamp bought the second version of "Bottle Dryer
[Bottlerack]" for his sister 1921. This version later belonged to the
collection of Robert Lebel, and was later signed by Duchamp: "Marcel
Duchamp/Antique certifie" and reproduced in Lucy R. Lippard's essay in
MoMA's Duchamp catalogue 1973.
Today this version belongs to
Jean-Jacque Lebel, Paris.
Duchamp did his third version of "Bottle
Dryer [Bottlerack]" in 1936. It was exhibited the same year at Charles
Ratton's gallery in Paris, May 1936. This third copy belonged to Man Ray,
but there is no record where it is today, but you can see it in the
photograph showing the interior of Ratton's gallery, reproduced in the
catalogue "Dada and Surrealism Reviewed", London 1978.
Rauschenberg bought a "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" which Duchamp signed in
the following way: "Impossible de me rappler la phase original/Marcel
Duchamp/1960". This third version was exhibited at Pasadena Art Museum
1963, Duchamp’s first retrospective exhibition.
In 1961, Duchamp
selected a "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" for his wife Alexina Duchamp, (She
was deceased 1995), with the inscription: "Marcel Duchamp 1914, (Replique
In 1963 Ulf Linde made a "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]", now at
Moderna Museet, Stockholm. This version was exhibited at Galleria Schwarz,
about the release of the edition of replicas made by Galleria Schwarz,
Milan 1964 in order to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of Duchamp’s first
Readymade. Schwarz released an edition of 8 signed copies and 2 copies
outside the edition reserved for the artist and Schwarz. These have the
inscription: "ex Rrose and ex Arturo". There are another two copies made
for exhibition purposes inscribed with: "Ex. h.c. pour exposition, 1964
and "Ex I/II donated to Israel Museum, Jerusalem, on occasion of Duchamp
retrospective, 1972. S 306.
But there are also other versions.
There is one, which Daniel Spoerri lent to Bokkonsum's exhibition in 1960.
This version is not mention in Schwarz. Perhaps because Duchamp never
signed it. One of the latest I have seen was shown in the exhibition "A
house is not a home" at Rooseum in Malmö 18.10-14.12,
Episode: When I asked the museum director Bo Nilsson, where
he had found the "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]", he told me that he and the
former director, Lars Nittve, had some serious problems to find a copy.
"You could have called me", I said.
I could notice a certain touch of
My own copy of the "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" was
purchased by my friend Torsten Ridell in the end of the ‘70:s at Bazaar de
l’ Hotel de Ville. My version is a Meta piece, a re-made, which brings it
back to its original purpose i.e. to dry wine bottles.
In 1997 I
order a new one made of plastic by my friend Jean Luc Guinnement in Paris,
but he misunderstood my request and sent me a green painted metal copy
also purchased at Bazaar de l’ Hotel de Ville in Paris. After this wrong
delivery, Angelica Juhlner, Fox Amphoux, succeeded to find the plastic
variant in Bajoule, Provence. This copy has a bright yellow bottom plate
and a blue rack, which can be dislocated in smaller parts.
are included in my own project "Pole Room", 1977-, where all the items
allude to the fact that blue and yellow become green when mixed. This
plastic version has a amusing connection by chance to the description of
how Elvis Presley was dressed when he was found dead in his bathroom: "He
died in his pyjamas, blue top and yellow bottom."
Dryer [Bottlerack]" shows indeed that "Ars longa vita brevis..." to use a
common incomplete quotation.
A wide spread information is that
Duchamp’s "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" was exhibited at MoMA's "Fantastic
Art, Dada, Surrealism" 1936/137. But that is a truth with modification.
That "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" was Man Ray’s photograph of a "Bottle
Dryer [Bottlerack]", probably the copy, which was exhibited by Charles
Ratton in May 1936. In MoMA's catalogue you can find a reproduction, where
the "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" stands on a corner of a table. In that
catalogue, you find the correct origin, but that information is lost in
later catalogues and books. (25)
Duchamp: "Ready-made," 1914. Photo Man
Objekt eller artefakter verkligheten
KASARK is a seven-paged magazine,
sic, published by Galerie Samlaren februari - mars 1954. On page 6, K. G.
H. (Pontus Hultén) writes an article with the headline "READY-MADE". This
is the first time someone in Sweden tries to explain what Duchamp’s
ready-mades represent. Two works by Marcel Duchamp are reproduced in this
issue of KASARK. (26)
KASARK no 1 1954. K. G. H. (Pontus Hultén)
Marcel Duchamp: "Ögat i
Biljardbollen", 1935. Rotorelief för grammofon. Bilden roterar med lägsta
hastighet och betraktas med ett öga." ("The eye in the billiard ball,
1935. Rotorelief for gramophone. The image will rotate at the slowest
speed and looked at with one eye.), (Rotoreliefs (Optical Disks) 2", 1935,
S 441. First edition 500 sets, each set with 6 cardboard disks printed on
both sides. About 300 sets were lost during World War II. Marcel Duchamp:
Flasktorkare, ready made, 1914. ("Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]"), ready-made,
1914. S 306.
Konstrevy no. 3
On page 131, Ulf Linde reviews
the exhibition "Object or artefacts reality fulfilled" at Galerie Samlaren
in Stockholm 1954. (27) He mentions Dada and he also makes a special
comment on a piece bought at EPA, a one price store company in Sweden,
similar to Bazaar
de l’ Hotel de Ville in Paris, where you can buy all
kinds of cheap goods.
Catalogue Galerie Samlaren, Stockholm
His comment refers to a piece
no. 33 in the exhibition catalogue by V. Enhult, (an anagram and pseudonym
for Pontus Hultén, one of those who organised the exhibition.), with the
title "Object with unknown application, ready-made found at One Price
Store EPA in Stockholm 1952." Linde writes "The title must be understood
as an attempt to release the object from all trivial relations to flour
bags in order to make it an aesthetic object of ‘exclusive uselessness’".
He does not write anything about Duchamp.
Odyssé no. 2-3
In this issue you find a note
about Picabia, where it also says that Duchamp published a Dadaist
publication "291" and "391".
Odyssé no. 4
Dag Wedholm published Odyssé.
Other editors: Ilmar Laaban, Öyvind Fahlström, Gösta Kriland, Pär
Wistrand, and V. Lundström. (28)(29)
Odyssé no. 4 1954, cover.
||29. Odyssé no. 4 1954, "Marcel
Gösta Kriland, artist, and Ilmar
Laaban, poet, have translated fourteen of Marcel Duchamp’s notes. You can
also find a biographical note about Duchamp, which point out that he is
one of the leading Dadaists, which have published a number of magazines
together with Picabia and others. That he has used the pseudonym "LHOOQ -
Elle a chaud au cul. Book: Rrose Sélavy. Film: Anemic Cinema. After 1920
only temporarily devoted himself to art - but more to chess." (L.H.O.O.Q.)
Gĺsblandaren, hösten 1954
Students at the Royal Institute
of Technology in Stockholm have published Gĺsblandaren and Vĺrblandaren
since 1863. Among the editors 1951-1955 are Hans Nordenström one of Pontus
Hultén’s closest friends, who participated in many of Hulten’s early
projects in the 50:s and 60:s. On the front cover collage of Gĺsblandaren,
autumn 1954 you can find one of Duchamp’s Rotoreliefs. S 441. (30) See
also item no. 2 in "Das gedruckte Museum von Hulten" 1996.
Gĺsblandaren, autumn 1954.
||31. Lutz Jahre, Das gedruckte Museum von Pontus Hultén,
Vĺrblandaren was a box
containing lose material all referring to art in a Dadaist fashion. It is
told that George Machunias, the Fluxus leader, used this box-issue as a
model for his different kits. (32)
Boulevardkartongen, Tvĺngsblandaren in a box, |
In this issue, you find on the
inside of the front cover an advertisement published by Galerie Samlaren,
Stockholm with this message "marcel du champ, new york/hultén/". Why
Duchamp appears in this advertisement I do not know.
It can be some
kind of tribute due to Hultén’s interests and appreciation of him. At the
time Hultén was working for Galerie Samlaren and was engaged in editing
KASARK where he wrote about Duchamp several times. (33)
Konstrevy no. 1 1955.|
C. O. Hultén opened his Galerie
Colibri, Malmö in January 1955 and the first issue of Salamander was
published that year. Only three issues were published 1955-1956. (34) In
the first issue you can find a translated fragment of André Breton's text
"Phare de la Mariée", (Bruden som fyrbĺk, [Lighthouse of the bride]),
first published in Minotaur no. 6, 1935. Ilmar Laaban and Ingemar
Gustafsson (Leckius), both poets, made the translation. In this issue, you
find three of Duchamp’s works.
Salamander no. 1, no. 2, no. 3 1955.|
som avklädd av sina ungkarlar, t.o.m. Glasmĺlning", (The Bride
Bare by Her Bachelors, Even [The Large Glass]), S 404.
mellan jungfru och brud". Olja 1912. (The Passage from Virgin to Bride)
1912. S 252.
"Nio hanliga gjutformar, detalj ur glasmĺlningen".
(Nine Malic Moulds detail from the Large Glass.)
It must be
something wrong with this title because if it is a detail from "The Large
Glass" you must see a part of the water mill, which you don’t do, though
"Nine Malic Moulds" are a part of the bachelors region. Duchamp made
according to Schwarz four versions. The original version 1914-15. S 328.
It was cracked in 1915. The second 1934, present location unknown. S 328
a. In 1938 Duchamp made miniature reproductions prepared for "The Box in a
Valise". S 328 b. The third he made in 1963, S 328 c.
was published in 1955 and shows a cracked version, it must be the original
version. It belongs to Alexina Duchamp since 1956. In the catalogue from
Pasadena, retrospective exhibition 1963 there is a reproduction of the
second version but dated 1963, and it has no similarity with the second
version 1934 in Schwarz 1997.
You can also find Marcel Duchamp’s
"SURcenSUR" originally published in "L’ usage de la Parole", (Paris) 1, nr
1 (December 1939) here translated by Erik Lindgren, poet and Ilmar Laaban.
This text is illustrated with yellow and black version of Duchamp’s
"Témoins Oculistes (Oculist Witnesses) 1920, New York. S 383. Now it is at
PMA. (The original is not coloured.)
Ingemar Gustafsson (Leckius)
has also written a short biographical note about Duchamp.
the first time Duchamp’s major work "The Large Glass", was reproduced in
Sweden. It is the original, which later was cracked during transportation
from Brooklyn Museum 1927. Now it is at PMA, earlier Kathrine S. Dreier,
There are different versions of Duchamp’s "The Large
Glass". Among others, Ulf Linde’s version signed pour copie conforme/
Marcel Duchamp/Stockholm 1961.
This version was exhibited in Pasadena
Art Museum, 1963, which was the first retrospective exhibition of
The copy at Tate Gallery, London was made by
Richard Hamilton signed "Richard Hamilton/pour copie conforme/Marcel
Duchamp/1965". A third copy will be found at Art Museum of the College of
Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1980.
A fourth replica was
made 1991-1992 by Ulf Linde, Henrik Samuelsson och John Stenborg and has
been authorised by Alexina Duchamp.
Konstrevy no. 3
In this issue, the art critic Bo
Lindwall has published his article "Marcel Duchamp-saboteur och
Duchamp-saboteur and anti-artist). (35)
Konstrevy no. 3 1955.|
He writes: "His intellect sharp as a
razor analysing every given possibility to pieces. He started to detest
all styles which he completely controlled, he found that even the most
radical cubists yield to disgusting aestheticism, already towards
petrified academism. His creativity was paralysed. The paralysis could not
be stopped as long as he dreamt about renewing the art when he succeeded
to convince himself that serious artistic activity was meaninglessness,
than the paralysis disappeared. A coffee mill became his rescue in the
first difficult crisis... 32 years ago he put down his brush for good. He
is still alive."
The coffee mill Lindwall refers to is "Coffee
Mill", which Duchamp painted for his brother Raymond Duchamp - Villon’s
kitchen. S 237. Since 1981, it is at Tate Gallery, London.
piece is an important reference for Ulf Linde’s actual geometrical analyse
of Duchamp’s last major piece "Etant Donnés: 1• la chute d’eau/2• le gaz
d'čclairage, 1946-66". S 634. Now it is at PMA. (But the latest news about
this project is that Linde has left it
Marcel Duchamp: "Porträtt av
konstnärens fader", 1910. (Portrait of the artist’s father, 1910), S 191.
Now it is at PMA.
"Sonaten" (Konstnärens mor och tre systrar),
1911. (Sonata, 1911), S 229. Now it is at PMA.
"Fresh Widow", 1920,
S 376. Now it is at MoMA.
There are two other versions of this piece,
Ulf Linde’s 1961 Now it is at MMS, and Schwarz´ anniversary edition
"Modeller till schackpjäser", 1922. (Chess Pieces, 1918-19),
S 377. Now it is at MoMA.
"Ungkarlarna", 1914, (Cemetery of
Uniforms and Liveries No. 2, 1914), S 305. Now it is at Yale University
"Collage: Monte Carlo", 1924, (Monte Carlo Bond,
1924), S 406.
"Ready-made, 1914 (Bottle Dryer
[Bottlerack]", 1914), S 306. See above.
"3 stoppages étalon", 1913,
(3 Stoppages Étalon (3 Standard Stoppages, 193-14), S 282. The original is
at MoMA. Replica made by Ulf Linde 1963 Now at MMS. A replica 1963 is at
Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena.
"Förvandlingen frĺn jungfru till
brud", (The Passage from Virgin to Bride, 1912), S 252. Now it is at
(As one checks the titles in Schwarz latest catalogue
raisonné you can see that the titles in the Swedish captions not always
In the same issue, page 127, Konstrevy present Denis
René's exhibition "Le Mouvement". Pontus Hultén organised that exhibition
together with Robert Breer and Jean Tinguely and some of Duchamp's
mechanical works were represented. "... in some cases they have, as
Duchamp used, clockworks or electricity operate the machinery." They also
point out that Samlaren's exhibition 1954, see above, was a forerunner to
In Salamander no. 2 there is an
article about Robert Matta written by James Thrall Soby where he suggests
Duchamp’s influence on Matta. Soby refers to the Surrealist Exhibition
"First Papers of Surrealism" in New York 1942. Soby implies that Matta has
been influenced by Duchamp’s Sixteen Miles of Strings, S 488, which was
running back and forth in the exhibition. And Soby continues "The effect
on his (Matta's) paintings is more likely as Duchamp's influence by large
had a great impact."
Sydsvenska Dagbladet (SDS), Tuesday, June
In this daily newspaper, Duchamp made an odd appearance in
Sweden, by chance so to speak. (36) The advertising agency Sellers &
Co. advertised trying to get new clients by this advertisement. They used
Mona Lisa and put a moustache on her. In a footnote, they refer to Marcel
Duchamp. "Why not be original? The Dadaist Marcel Duchamp thought
sometimes in the twenties-and put a moustache on Mona Lisa! Both Duchamp’s
fantastic trick and the Dadaism had however short lifetimes like a
dragonfly. How many for example know today anything about monsieur Marcel
Duchamp’s herostratic creation of art?" (33).
Sydsvenska Dagbladet, Tuesday, June 14
KASARK no. 2
In this issue, K. G. Hultén
(Pontus Hultén) presents "Art in Motion-kinetic art". I think Hultén is
the first one to write and point out this field of art. On the cover
printed in bold and light red capital letters you find this headline:
"Objekt eller artefakter verkligheten förverkligad" 1954 (The substituted
freedom or about art in motion and Tinguely's metamecanic by Karl G.
KASARK no. 2, autumn 1955.|
Hultén was one of the curators
of "Le Mouvement" at Galerie Denise René in Paris 1955. See above. And he
has demonstrated his interest in art in motion many times since
(The best brief information about his writings on this matter
you can find in "Das Gedruckte Museum von Pontus Hulten" 1996. The
highlights are of course "Le Mouvement" Paris 1955, "Marcel Duchamp,
Bokkonsum", Stockholm 1960", "Rörelse i konsten" (Art in Motion)", 1961
and "The Machine", MoMA 1968.)
In this, issue he makes one his
attempts to introduce the importance of the kinetic art, where Duchamp has
played a major roll. On page 7-13, In this chapter Hultén presents
Duchamp’s moving and mechanical works and his important roll in that
It is illustrated with:
Photo from Duchamp’s studio
in New York, where you can see his "first readymade" but a replica of "The
Bicycle Wheel" S 278, and on the floor you can see "Trébuchet" S
Photo of the "The Large Glass" S 404, the cracked version in
Katherine S. Dreir's home.
Photos of "Rotary Glass Plates
(Precision Optics)", one in motion and one in stillness, S 379. Now it is
at Yale University Art Gallery. In the article, it is called "Rotary Glass
Piaques", which must be a printing error. It shall be "Rotary Glass
Plaques", which is Duchamp’s first motor-driven object 1920.
of "Rotary Demisphere", 1925 S 409. Now it is at MoMA.
three of Duchamp’s "Rotoreliefs", 1935. S 441.
AVANTGARDE-FILM, by Peter
In his book pp 21-40, Peter
Weiss has a chapter about the avant-garde films in the 20´s. Included are
Marcel Duchamp´s "Anemic Cinéma" 1927, and his roll in René Clair´s
"Entr´acte", 1925, in the famous chess party scene with Man Ray on a Paris
rooftop. The text is illustrated with that scene and stills from Duchamp´s
own film. (37 b)
AVANTGARDE-FILM 1956, Peter Weiss.|
This is a small and local art
magazine published in the south of Sweden. In no. 3/4 Max Walter Svanberg
writes about "The magic art". He mentions the Dadaist Duchamp. His article
is illustrated with "The King and Queen Traversed by Nudes at High Speed"
S 246. Now it is at PMA. In a special caption Svanberg make following
remark: "Duchamp, is one of the most important and incentive artists
according to the new directions of art, which in this article are called
"the non geometrical abstractions". (38).
Konstspegeln no. 3-4 1956.|
KASARK no. 3 Maj.
In this issue, K.G.H. (Pontus
Hultén) writes about collage or fantastic realities. On page 8, he points
out that Duchamp’s used chance to create "3 stoppages étalon". S 282. Now
it is at MoMA. (39)
KASARK no. 3 Maj (19)58.|
Konstrevy no. 3
In his review "Utställningar i
Stockholm mars - april" (Exhibitions in Stockholm March-April) Eugen
Wretholm, mentions that Öyvind Fahlström uses chance as Duchamp. Probably
the first time Duchamp’s influence on other artists is mentioned in
Konstrevy no. 3 1959.|
In this issue you find information
about coming exhibitions at Galleri Vallingatan 42 (Bok-Konsum): "Galleri
42 "Marcel Duchamp" February 1960. Hans Nordström "BRUL" March, Edition
KASARK no. 4
This issue was published about
the exhibition "Edition MAT" (Daniel Spoerri) at Bokkonsum in Stockholm,
April 1960. (41)
KASARK no. 4 april 1960.|
Even in this issue, K.G.H.
(Pontus Hultén) writes about Duchamp. Headline:
"A Work of Art has no
Price" He quotes Duchamp: "The modern art looks for its Gutenberg".
Duchamp is presented like this: "Painter, poet, chess player, and a
forerunner within Dadaism, surrealism and the kinetic art. In 1936,
Duchamp exhibited his Rotoreliefs at the inventor’s exposition in Paris.
Born in Blainville, France." See below Konstrevy no. 3/60.
Eugen Wretholm writes about the
exhibition at Bokkonsum, which he calls "Dadaistica". He mentions Marcel
Duchamp and reproduces his Rotoreliefs placed on the pavement in front of
the gallery together with other items from Edition
Article by Öyvind Fahlström about
Jean Tinguel´s, En maskins död", Marcel Duchamp is mentioned on page
Saturday May 7, 1960 Bokkonsum
opened an exhibition with some replicas of Marcel Duchamp’s ready-mades
made by Per Olof Ultvedt and Ulf Linde. (42) In "Das gedruckte Museum von
Hulten" 1996 page 83 are the circumstances about this exhibition
described. In Linde’s book "Marcel Duchamp" 1986, it is described in a
quite different way.
Linde. "Marcel Duchamp" 1986 p. 10, |
in and outside Bokkonsum
On page 10 in Linde’s book 1986,
you find a reproduction of the announcement card from Bokkonsum and some
other photographs taken on the occasion. (42) In one, taken of the
shop-window, you can see a large copy of (Elias) Eliot Elisofon's photo
from Life Magazine, April 1952 "Duchamp descending a staircase", a
paraphrase of his painting "Nude Descending a Staircase". Later used as
cover on the revised edition of Robert Lebel’s monograph "Marcel Duchamp"
published by Paragraphic Books, Grossman Publishers, New York 1967. In
that edition, Lebel has extended his Catalogue Raisonné with information
about Duchamp’s appearances in Sweden.
You can also see Ulf Linde’s
"Bicycle Wheel" 1960, S 278 c. Now at MMS. "Fresh Widow", S 376, a
carpenter made it on Linde’s request and was later acknowledged and signed
by Duchamp "pour copie conforme Marcel" this version is now in the
collection of MMS. In his book 1986, Linde calls it a readymade but
According to Schwarz, it is not. You can also see the "Chocolate Grinder,
No. 2", 1914, S 291. And there is a small version of "The Large Glass",
which Linde says "Happily it has disappeared".
In Bokkonsum's show
were also "Bottle Rack" which Daniel Spoerri had purchased at Bazaar l’
Hotel de Ville in Paris, and lent to the show. This copy is not mentioned
Paletten no. 3
On page 91, they publish Marcel
Duchamp’s "The Creative Act" translated by Folke Edwards, the chief
editor. This lecture was given by Duchamp at the Convention of the
American Federation of Arts in Houston, April 1957. See also page 99 where
you can find information about Duchamp as a contributor to this issue.
Spejare by Ulf Linde
Linde’s book "Spejare"
(Searcher) (See 11) was one of the reasons that started the great debate
about art in Sweden later named "Är allting konst?" (Is everything art?).
Perhaps it was one of Linde’s statements that awoke the most anger among
artists and members of The Royal Academy of Arts, because Linde stressed
Duchamp’s opinion that the viewer creates the work. Duchamp’s opinion was
already released in 1957 in his lecture "The creative act" 1957.
was Rabbe Enckell, chairman of the Royal Academy of Arts, who started the
debate. He did it with his speech "Ikaros och lindansare, ett försvar för
klassisismen" (Ikaros and ropewalkers, a defence for the classicism) given
to the academy, May 30, 1962. Thereby he dissociated himself and the
academy from the tendencies that he thought were threatening the order of
art. This huge debate was later published in book called "Är allting
konst?" (Is everything art?), Stockholm 1963 with Duchamp’s "Bottle Dryer
[Bottlerack]", on the cover. Sic!
It was not only Linde’s book,
which caused this violent turbulence in the Swedish art context. There
were other art events, which in the beginning of the 60’s contributed to
the debate. Among other things was the purchasing politics of Moderna
Museet in Stockholm. When they purchased Brancusi's "Le Nouveaux-né" 1961
from Rolf de Marée. In those days, it was an enormous price of 161.000
Swedish Crowns. Many thought it was an extremely waste of
Art in Motion and Four Americans
In 1961 K.G. Hultén, Carlo
Derkert, Daniel Spoerri, and Billy Klüver opened the one of Moderna
Museet’s most important exhibitions "Art in Motion" 17 May-3 September
1961. But as they understood that "Art in Motion" would be a chock to the
Swedish art public it was first shown at Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam,
March 10-April 17. See Moderna Museet Stockholm 1958-1983, page 36 and
below. (See 4)
And I can remember myself what debacle it was when
Moderna Museet presented "4 Americans" in March 1962. Robert
Rauschenberg's works made the biggest scandal with his "Monogram" a
longhaired goat with a tyre around his stomach and a painted face. But
also his "The Bed" a painted bed with cushion, sheets and a quilt hanging
on the wall raised questions if that really could be considered as
It was during these two exhibitions Linde’s opinion about the
viewer’s roll, got its breakthrough, probably because the great publicity
about what was exhibited at the Moderna Museet. The issues were related.
Not very odd that the conservative public and art critiques and artists
were terrified, because in a way they had become
Konstrevy no. 1
Öyvind Fahlström writes a review
about Ulf Linde’s "Spejare", 1961.
"The central point in ‘Spejare’
is the analyse of Marcel Duchamp’s large painting which for the first time
by us is placed in its correct importance (compare with the confusing
whisperings made in connection with Duchamp’s exhibition at Konstsalongen,
[Bokkonsum], Vallingatan. ‘Spejare’ is the most stimulating and
beautifully written book in Swedish which I have
Rörelse i konsten, Moderna Museet,
17 maj-3 september 1961,
This exhibition is one of the
most important ever made in the 20th century. (See 4) In the working
committee you find K.G. Hultén, (Pontus Hultén), Carlo Derkert, Daniel
Spoerri and from U.S.A. Billy Klüver. Pontus Hultén, was editor of the
catalogue and in his introduction he writes: "The contemporary art is
often pessimistic, defeatistic and passive; completely natural one can
mean. But there is also an another kind of art. That is what this
exhibition want to show (dynamic, constructive, full of joy, confusing,
ironical, humorous, aggressive...).
It is probably even typical for our
The 19th century exhibitions were visited by the same curious
and interested masses of spectators that today are visiting the motor
shows. But will they in the end find what they are looking for?
Apollinaire wrote in 1913 according to Marcel Duchamp that only an art,
which is liberated from aesthetic concerns and which, is dealing with
energy as a pictorial material can hope to ‘re-unit the Art an the
The camera is the machine to take picture with, which is
available to everyone. But there are other art machines, perhaps more
independent, which also talks to us and tells us who we are. They appear
in many forms and materials, sometimes they look like scientific research
or camouflage themselves as toys.
The kinetic art has during the
20th century been developing in many different ways, taken at least
equally varying forms as the static art. To use the physical movement as
an instrument of expression gives it a freedom, which art has been trying
to attain for a long time...
In the catalogue, you
find a short dictionary about the artists working with kinetic art. In the
biographical note about Marcel Duchamp, they mention his first two
ready-mades. "Pharmacy", S 283 and "Flaskstället" (Bottle Dryer
([Bottlerack] . S 306. See below about Duchamp’s works in the
They also quote Duchamp "I did not stop painting in
order to play chess. That is a myth. It is always like that. Because
someone begins to paint it does not mean that he must continue with that.
He is not even forced to stop. He just does not do it any more, in the
same way that you do not make omelettes any longer, if you prefer meat. I
do not think that it is necessary to classified people and, above all,
treat painting as a profession. I do not understand why people try to do
painters of civil servants and civil servants of the ministry of the fine
arts. There are those who get medals, and those, who paint."
also find a short review about the history of kinetic art in the 20th
century by K.G. Hultén. He starts with some futurists artists, continues
with Marcel Duchamp’s Coffee Mill 1911, and ends the presentation of
Duchamp’s works with Rotoreliefs made in 1936.
Nine of Duchamp’s
important kinetic works were shown at "Art in Motion" in addition to
"Boite-en-valise" witch was represented at, the show. Therefore one can
say that all of Duchamp’s major works were present. "Boite-en-Valise"
represents a retrospective exhibition in a small suitcase. That was the
first time Duchamp’s works were presented to a larger public in Sweden,
perhaps for the first time in the world, without being related to Cubism,
Futurism, Dadaism, and Surrealism.
If this was actually his mayor
breakthrough in the context of Swedish art, is yet to be decided. Tough he
did become absolutely accepted by the institutional art world at that
time, his standing today is another question.
Works by Duchamp
in the exhibition:
"Cykelhjulet", 1913, reconstruction,
"Chokladkvarn Nr 2", 1914 (Chocolate Grinder No.
2), S 291.
"Naken gĺr nedför en trappa, Nr 3", 1916, (Nude
descending a staircase, No. 3) S 343.
"Bruden avklädd t.o.m. av
sina ungkarlar", 1915-23, reconstruction 1961, (The Bride Stripped Bare by
Her Bachelors, Even [The Large Glass]),
Plaques" (Optique de Precision), 1920, reconstruction 1960. (Rotary Glass
Plates (Precision Optics) S 379.
"Demisphčre Rotative 1925 (Optique
de Precision)", (Rotary Demisphere (Precision Optics) S
"Skivor med ordsprĺk", 1926, (Anemic Cinema: "Disks Inscribed
with Puns"), S 415-23.
"Dörren i 11, rue Larrey", Paris 1927,
reconstruction 1960. (Door: 11, rue Larrey), S 426.
Rotoreliefer", 1935, (Rotoreliefs (Optical Disks), S
"Boite-en-Valise". (From or by Marcel Duchamp or Rrose Sélavy
[The Box in Valise], 1935-41), S 484.
For the exhibition "Rörelse i
konsten" (Art in Motion) in Amsterdam and Stockholm Pontus Hultén, Per
Olof Ultvedt and Magnus Wibom did a replica of "Rotary Glass Plates
(Precision Optics)", S 379. Hultén and Daniel Spoerri made a replica of
"Door: 11 rue Larrey". S 426. It was destroyed after the exhibitions. (See
Konstrevy no. 3
On page 99, you can read about
"Art in movement" at Moderna Museet. It is illustrated with a photo
Duchamp visiting Iris Clert's gallery in Paris.
In Eugen Wretholm's
review "Utställningar i Stockholm" (Exhibitions in Stockholm), page 112,
Duchamp’s Fountain" and "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack] are mentioned. You can
also find Umbro Apolloninos' article "The inner movement" where he refers
to Duchamp’s and used "Nude Descending a Staircase" as an
Konstrevy no. 4
Eugen Wretholm writes about "Art
in Movement" where he mentions Duchamps "Nu descendant un escalier" and
remarks that the exhibition was originated in Paris as "Le Mouvement" at
Denis René by K.G. Hultén and refers to his text about Art in Motion in
KASARK 3, October 1955.
Konstrevy no. 5-6
On page 162-165, Ulf Linde
writes the essay "Framför och bakom glaset" ("In front and behind the
Konstrevy no. 5-6 1961.|
This is an important article
about Duchamp’s "The Large Glass". It is illustrated with 6 photographs
taken about the assembling of Linde’s first reconstruction of "The Large
Glass" together with Duchamp. It is a kind of interview with
Other illustrations are:
Marcel Duchamp photographed as
a woman by Man Ray. But the correct title is according to Schwarz "Marcel
Duchamp as Belle Halleine", photo Man Ray 1921, S 385.
Grinder no. 2." S 291.
"The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors,
Even", S 404, 1915-1923. Now it is at PMA.
Page out of "Boite
Verte, The Green Box". A box with 93 notes, drawings, photographs, and/or
facsimiles by Duchamp contained in a green-flocked cardboard box, 1934. S
On page 224-227, Öyvind Fahlström writes about "The Art of
Assemblage" at Museum of Modern Art, New York and he mentions Duchamp’s
last painting "Tu m´", S 354. Now it is at Yale University Art Gallery.
His article is illustrated with the version of "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]"
on a table photographed by Man Ray and sent in by Duchamp to the Museum of
Modern Art exhibition 1936-37.
Paletten no. 1
Paletten no. 1 1961 published an
article "Marcel Duchamp: Anti-Artist" by Harriet and Sidney Janis
translated by Folke Edwards, chief editor. (45)
This article is richly
illustrated with mayor works from Duchamp’s
1912, S 253.
"Coffee Mill", 1911, S 237.
1935, S 441.
"Bicycle Wheel", 1916, (1913), S 278.
Duchamp", portrait by Man Ray 1920. But it is Marcel Duchamp as Belle
Haleine, by Man Ray 1921 in New York according to S
"L.H.Q.O.Q.", 1919. But the correct title is "L.H.O.O.Q.",
1919, Paris. S 369.
"Bachelors", 1914. But the correct title is
"Nine Malic Moulds", S 328. It is hard to see which version it is because
the editor has only reproduced a part of the original size. But it seems
to be the original version Duchamp made 1914.
"The King and Queen
Traversed by Nudes at High Speed", 1912, S 246.
"Nude Descending a
Staircase, No. 2", 1912, S 242.
"Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]", 1914,
S 306. This photograph is another version taken by Man Ray 1936. This has
both a shadow and a white reflex below its base. It looks like somebody
has made a retouch.
"Trois Stoppages Étalon (3 Standard
Stoppages)", 1913-14. S 282.
"La Mariée mise a nu ses
clélibataires, meme", 1914-1923. S 404. The cracked version in Katherine
S. Dreir's home
"Fresh Widow", 1920, S 376.
"Tu m´", 1918, S
"Roterande glasplattor (Precisionsoptik)", 1920. The correct
title is "Rotating Glass Plates (Precision Optics)", S
"Chocolate Grinder No.1", 1913, S 264.
Paletten no. 2
In this issue Elisabet
Hermodsson, artist and poet, comments Linde’s book "Spejare". Her
contribution is titled "Critics as a benefit moralist" and she quotes
Linde: "By it self nothing is art. First you have to call it art, see it
as a work of art."
Linde replies in the same issue where he talks
about Duchamp’s readymade "Why not sneeze":
"You have to do something
with the art work, that it could ‘be’ art."
was typical among the conservative artists in Sweden. They were afraid of
losing their territory of art.
Folke Edwards comments the
exhibition "Art in Motion". He notes that many of the pioneers
participated and that Duchamp was a representative for Futurism,
Constructivism, and Dadaism.
Öyvind Fahlström comments on
Duchamp’s Surcensur and notices that "Duchamp has as usual done it
before..." Page 27. (46)
Paletten no. 3
Torsten Andersson, painter
contributes with "One price store culture or artistic dictatorship". He
writes "In the shadow of Duchamps... I don’t stop any man in the world by
presenting a "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]" or let the public fire a
In this issue, Linde begins to
present his important translation of Duchamp’s notes about "The Large
Glass". S 404. The notes 1-11 are published. It is illustrated with
sketches from the "Green Box". S 435. (47)
Konstrevy no. 1, 1962. In this issue UlfLinde begins his
of notes from "The Green
In this issue Linde continues
his translation of Duchamp’s notes about "The Large Glass", notes 12-33.
It is illustrated with sketches from the "Green
Konstrevy no. 3
In this issue Linde continues
his translation of Duchamp’s notes about "The Large Glass", notes 34-39.
It is illustrated with sketches from the "Green
Konstrevy no. 4
In this issue Linde continues
his translation of Duchamp’s notes about "The Large Glass", notes 40-48.
It is illustrated with sketches from the "Green Box" and a photo of "Nine
Under the review "Exhibitions in Paris", they note
an exhibition at Galerie L’Oeil where they showed the art magazine
Minotaur. By the works mentioned, you find Marcel Duchamp’s "The Green
Box" and "Rotoreliefs".
Konstrevy no. 5-6
In this issue Linde ends his
translation of Duchamp’s notes about "The Large Glass", notes 49-78, which
he had made in collaboration with Malou Höjer. It is illustrated with
sketches from the "Green Box". This contains 93 notes on "The Large
Glass". In Art Review No. 1/1963, he publishes his comments on the
subject. See below. (48)
Konstrevy no. 5-6 1962. In this issue Ulf Linde |
translation of "The Green Box".
Paletten no. 4
C. G. Bjurström, "Artworks and
things" where he discusses among others Linde’s interpretation of
Duchamp’s "Bottle Dryer [Bottlerack]".
Here you find Ulf Linde's essay
"Kommentar till Marcel Duchamps "Bruden avklädd av sina ungkarlar, t.o.m."
(Comment to Marcel Duchamp’s "The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors,
Even.") It is illustrated with drawings from the "Green Box" and
photography of Marcel Duchamp taken by Lütfi Özkök in Stockholm 1961.
Konstrevy no. 1 1963, Comments on Marcel Duchamp´s |
Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors,
Konstrevy no. 2
Full size advertisement about
Marcel Duchamp’s exhibition at Galerie Eva af Burén April - May 1963.
Illustrated by a photography of Duchamp’s "Female Fig Leaf" S 536.
Konstrevy no. 2 1963, Female Fig Leaf. |
Advertisement for Galerie
Eva af Burén.
Är allting konst?
A collection of contributions to
the great debate "Is everything art?" published by Tribunserien, Bonniers
1963. See above. Ulf Linde’s reply to Torsten Bergmark's criticism is
perhaps the sharpest and clearest I have ever read. (51)
Galerie Eva af Burén - Marcel
In connection with Duchamp’s
exhibition at Galerie Eva af Burén, Stockholm 1963 with replicas of his
ready-mades Ulf Linde released his book "Marcel Duchamp" (52) and he
begins it in a very different way: "I must ask the reader not to read the
text - it is secondary. It is the captions, which are primary. I must ask
you to read them first."
This is the first book published
in Sweden about the complexity of Duchamp’s works. In which you get a
glimpse of Duchamp’s aesthetics and anti-aesthetics views used by him
since he distanced himself from the retinal art.
In Linde’s book
1987 he reveals how his book about Marcel Duchamp finally was published.
Primarily Linde’s text was written by request from Marcel Duchamp, for
Metro a very exclusive magazine in Milan, which had offered Duchamp to use
32 pages in no. 9. Duchamp, who had read Linde’s text in "Spejare", asked
Linde if he could take care of the text for Metro by using the text from
"Spejare" with a few corrections and perhaps a new text.
wished that Linde emphasised on his ready-mades and used a few of his own
texts-Linde could make his own choice. But Linde’s text was never
published in Metro so he started to think how that could be
The issue of finances was solved when Duchamp offered his
"Self-portrait in Profile" in a special edition of 1-25 copies (53). It
sold well and covered a part of the printing costs, S 557 b. An,
unnumbered edition was also published about the exhibition.
show actually began when Linde visited Galerie Burén. During the call, he
began discussing ways to display Duchamp’s "Boite en Valise".
Burén had purchased the work and wanted to exhibit it at her gallery. She
wanted to consult the poosibilities with Linde.
"After a while we had
planned an exhibition, which should contain replicas of almost every
readymade by Duchamp. Only two were available in Stockholm - "Bicycle
Wheel" and "Fresh Widow", both signed by him when he was here (1961) - but
one could ask Duchamp to manufacture the rest. - We wrote to Duchamp and
received an immediate reply". (See above.)
Replicas made for the
exhibition at Burén:
"3 Stoppages étalon" by Ulf Linde 1963.
Signed 1964 in Milan. S 282 a.
"Bottle Rack" by Ulf Linde 1963. S
306 e. Not signed.
"Le Peigne" by Ulf Linde 1963. Signed in Milan
1964. S 339 a.
"A bruit secret" by Ulf Linde 1963. Signed in Milan
1964. S 340 a.
"Air de Paris" by Ulf Linde 1963. Signed in Pasadena
1963. Signature lost at Louisiana, Humlebćck 1975. S 375
"Fountaine" by Ulf Linde 1963. Signed in Milan 1964. S 345
"...pliant de voyage..." by Ulf Linde 1963. Signed in Pasadena
S 341 a.
"Why not sneeze?" by Ulf Linde 1963. Signed in
Milan 1964. S 391 a.
"In advance of the broken arm" by Ulf Linde
1963. S 332 b.
Replicas already made for
"Bicycle Wheel" by P. O. Ultvedt and Ulf Linde 1960
for Bokkonsum, signed 1961. S 278 c.
"Fresh Widow" by P. O. Ultvedt
and Ulf Linde 1960, for Bokkonsum, signed 1961. S 376 a.
mise ŕ nu par ses célibataires, męme" by Ulf Linde 1961. Signed in
Stockholm 1961 for Art in Motion. S 404 a.
Other works by
Duchamp at Moderna Museet:
"Cśur volant". S 446
"Rotorelief". S 441.
"Rotary Glass Plaques" replica by P.
O. Ultvedt, M. Wibom and (K. G. Hultén). S 379 a.
1951. S 542.
(Source: "Supplement, Katalogen Moderna Museet,
"Pharmacie" replica by Marcel Duchamp 1963. Gift from Ulf
(Source: "Supplement, Katalogen Moderna
"Marcel Duchamp" av Ulf Linde, edition de luxe
published by Eva af Burén 1963. S 557.
1964. S 608.
"Étant donnés le gaz d’clairage et la chute d'eau", is
a gift from Thomas Fisher. S 526.
"Étant donnés le gaz d’clairage
et la chute d'eau". Gift from Thomas Fisher. S 531.
célibataire", model made by Hĺkan Rehnberg 1984. It is not in
"Le surréalisme męme", S 548.
"Boite en valise", Statens Konstmuseer.
"A l’infinitif", Statens Konstmuseer. S 637.
de toucher", Statens Konstmuseer. S 521-523.
Marcel Duchamp, Moderna Museet, Stockholm 1986-1987)
Paletten no. 3
Arne Törnqvist reviews Ulf
Linde's book "Marcel Duchamp" (52) on pages 123 and 125, in "Reflexer"
where Törnqvist writes about Moderna Museet’s purchase of Linde’s Duchamp
Marcel Dutchman’s "Virgin, No.
1"1912, S 250 drawing, illustrates Karin Bergqvist-Lindegren's review
about Dokumenta III. (Later she becomes director of Moderna
This contains an advertisement
for the special edition of 25 copies of Ulf Linde’s book "Marcel Duchamp"
published by Galerie Eva af Burén. In this edition you will find Duchamp’s
"Self-portrait in Profile" S 557 b, used in the advertisement.
Moderna Museet besöker Landskrona
K.G.Hultén writes introduction.
"Bicycle Wheel", 1913, S
"Bottle Dryer (Bottlerack)", 1914, S 306 e,
(Comb)", 1916, S 339 a,
"A bruit secret, (With Hidden Noise)",
1916, S 340 a,
"Fontaine, (Fountain)", 1917, S 345
"...pliant de voyage...(Traveler's Folding Item [Underwood]",
1917, S 342 a,
"Fresh Widow", 1920, S 376 a,
sneeze, (Why Not Sneeze Rose Sélavy?)" 1921, S 391 a,
1930-tal, (Rotoreliefs [Optical Disks])", 1935, S 441,
valise", 1942, ("From or by Marcel Duchamp or Rrose Sélavy [The Box in
Valise]", 1935-41), S 484,
"Objet Dard" 1951, (Objet-Dard [Dart
Object, 1951]), S 542.
"Feuille de Vigne", 1951, ("Feuille de Vigne
Femelle [Female Fig Leaf, 1950]"), S 536.
Fyra artiklar av Ulf Linde
With these four articles all
published in the daily newspaper Dagens Nyheter, spring 1965, Linde
retired as their art critic, and these were later published in a book with
the same title by BLM biblioteket, Bonniers, Stockholm 1965.
He had enough. All four articles
are the result of the great debate of art, which started in 1962. In the
fourth article he comments Duchamp’s attitude about his readymade
"Fountain" and he quotes Duchamp: "Whether Mr Mutt did the fountain with
his own hands or not has no relevance. He CHOOSED it.
well-known utility goods and presented it that its common idea
disappeared. A new title and a new point of view did it possible; he
created a new concept for the item in question."
(See The Blind Man,
P.B.T. no. 2 May 1917. This editorial has often been attributed to Duchamp
himself, but according to Schwarz XXII 10, 1997, page 898 "rather written
by the editorial board".)
(Refer to Hector Obalk’s article "The
Unfindable readymades" ToutFaitJournal Vol. 1 Issue 2, 1999, and Beatrice
Wood´s autobiography "I Shock Myself", 1992 , pp
Gorilla (1), kalender
This is one of the most original
publications about art and culture in Sweden in an era that was
characterised by Marshall McLuhan.
Only two issues were released. In
this first issue Leon Rappaport, Polish mathematician, physicist, diplomat
and author of Determinantan and Eva writes "Kring konsten" (About art). He
polemizes against Marcel Duchamp, and wrires how Duchamp has mixed two
completely different things i his work. (55)
Meddelande frĺn Moderna Museet nr.
This issue of Moderna Museet’s
bulletin was published as catalogue for the DADA exhibition 1966. (56) On
page 17, K.G.H (Pontus Hultén) presents Marcel Duchamp. Hultén writes
about Duchamp’s ready-mades and his waning faith in the traditional art.
14 works by Duchamp are in the exhibition and 10 of them are Linde’s
ready-made replicas. Each item is well described in detail.
Hultén's article is accompanied
by facsimile of a letter to Duchamp concerning the origins of his
ready-mades. The artist wrote his replies within the margins of the letter
and specifically comments on the Bicycle Wheel: "Yes, but no name, not
even ready made 1913. Never exhibited and lost after moving", Duchamp
(See above the letters to Suzanne Duchamp and Schwarz no.
278 a, replica also lost.)
The Swedish artist Ulrik Samuelson
writes about Duchamps "art coeffient" on page 51-52.
In his essay
Billy Klüver, page 56-66, mention Marcel Duchamp on page 64, illustrated
with The Bicycle Weel.
On page 67-76 you find Ulf Linde´s important
essay "Duchamp och den fjärde dimensionen" (Duchamp and fourth
In this issue you find an editorial
note about the review in Art International about Marcel Duchamp´s
retrospective exhibition at Tate shown during the summer in 1966.
Duchamp´s "The Large Glass" is mentioned and why Ulf Linde´s keys to "The
Large Glass" have been excluded, page 148. At page 189, "Världskonsten",
(Art of the World) "Hur skulle den amerikanska konsten ha sett ut i dag
utan Marcel Duchamp" (Wath would the American Art look today wihout Marcel
Vĺr konst no. 6
Vĺr Konst, no. 6, 1966 publiched
an article about "grammonskivor, pocketböcker, multikonst" (gramophone
records, pocket books, multiple art) by Kristian Romare.
He writes: "A modern folk art of
mass-produced artistic objects to experience, distributed in the same way
as pocket books and gramophone records into our daily life, are necessary
if not the visual art shall remain an isolated phenomenon inside the walls
of the museums..."
He tells us how Daniel Spoerri started edition
MAT in 1959, and that he asked Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, Vasarely, Tinguely
and athor artists to create hundreds of copies of tree dimensional
artworks, to be sold for a couple of hundred crowns.
"In the springtime, in connection with Riksutställningar's -
Konstfrämjandet's campaign of the multi art project, 1966, a gallery
(Galleri Hedenius, EW KR nr 4, 1966, also in Malmö and Gothenburg Galere
Leger 1967) in Stockholm arranged an exhibition with multiples edited by
Edition-MAT, [100 copies of Duchamp’s 1953 edition], with a great sale
success. (Romare is wrong about the year, because that exhibition was
arranged already in 1960) (The exhibitions) by Spoerri's friend Per Olof
Ultvedt, (were shown) with the first Edition MAT collection at Bokkonsum
in Stockholm and in controversial pamphlet called KASARK."
continues: " ‘The modern art looks for its Gutenberg’ has Duchamp said.
And he is also the one who earliest and most radically had broken with the
idea about the unique, valuable Work of Art and looked for ways to
communicate the idea of art, the conceptual expression, by mass fabricated
things. Neither already produced objects, like his famous ´Bottle Rack´and
´Bicycle Wheel´or his own images, for which the production is as natural
as when a manuscript is printed or gramophone record is pressed. With his
Rotoreliefs, 1935 - optical disks which are records for the eye-has he
demonstrated how mass fabricated artworks could be done."
article is illustrated with the following works:
ögat: Marcel Duchamps rotorelief" frĺn 1935, utgiven av Moderna Museet i
Stockholm, att ses i rörelse. (Optical disk for the eye: Marcel Duchamp’s
Rotoreliefs, to be seen in motion, published by Moderna Museet, Stockholm.
(For this work, see S 441 page 731 under Reproductions 5.
Eugen Wretholm mentions Marcel
duchamp and the Surrealist Exhibition at Galerie Mćght, Paris, and the
special edition of catalogue "Pričre de toucher", designed by Marcel
Duchamp in his review about foreign exhibitions, on page 3.
writes about Peggy Guggenheim´s exhibition at Moderna Museet in Stockholm
where he mentions Duchamp on page 40. On page 41 he also refers to
Duchamp´s "chokladkross" ("Chocolate Grinder"), disguised to a vacuum
cleaner. On page 38 "Konstrond i Caracas" (Art tour in Caracas), Marcel
Duchamp are mentioned according to "Le Mouvement" 1955 at Galerie Denis
Per Drougge: "Strip-Tease pĺ
barrikaden, ett spel med figurer och innebörder". (Strip-Tease on the
barricades, a play with figures and meanings.)
Drougge says: "The
most strange myth in modern history of art is probably that has appeared
around Marcel Duchamp..."
Eugen Wretholm writes in his foreign
review about Duchamp´s exhibition at Musée National d´Art Moderne, Paris,:
"Musée National d´Art Moderne, have dedicated Marcel Duchamp an
retrospective exhibition which is as late as it is poor, completed with
sculptures by Raymond Duchamp-Villon, who died untimely. The major work
"The Large Glass" was not included (Ulf Linde´s replica was shown at the
extensive Surrealist Exhibition at Galerie Charpentier last year.) The
only works of interest, rarely shown, were some of his early
post-impressionistic works. In these you can see how early Duchamp
mastered the craft which he later held in contempt.
continues: "In the May issue of L´Oeil Robert Lebel pubished an
interesting interview with Duchamp, who in his ironical way commented that
he was satisfied with the increasing interest in "The Large Glass" and
other works by him. That is much better than photographs in colour or
black and white, though these are lacking the specific aesthetic touch,
which Duchamp later on the other hand did not give much consideration,
page 147. Lebel Quotes Marcel Duchamp: "My main thought was to reduce -
but at the same time I reconised the purpose of my art as something more
introvert, the world around me became of less interest."
This issue is dedicated to the
Surrealism and there you can find a translation from Marcel Duchamp’s "A
l’infinitif" Neuilly 1913. (58)
On page 193 Olle Granath qoutes from
Breton´s Surrealistic Manifest. "Jag är angelägen om att tillägga att
varje form av surrealistisk teknik är mig fullständigt likgiltig.", and he
continues: "Marcel Duchamp has, rather late in his life, raised the same
demands about contemporary art: "...once more put painting into the
service of mind."
In this interesting article "Konsten
som tvĺng och som befrielse" (Art as compulsion and as liberation) by Ola
Billgren, page 80-87, he presents his ideas about Duchamp´s and his works.
On page 82 he mentions Linde´s "Spejare".
On page 83 you find this
piece: "The characteristic of the whole process is how a striving towards
objectivness is changed to an opinion, which of course gives the artist
identity, but at the same time makes him singel. And this condition one
has tried to ignore and cover in veils of mist - not even Marcel Duchamp
could remedy this fear.
It seems incomprehensible that Marcel Duchamp´s
ideas did not received a more radical importance to contemporary art than
it got, yet he pointed out what one most of all feared, and did it
furthermore from the same position as his
Ther is no need to look closer to
Duchamp´s art sabotage. Let us only summarise a couple of important
things: Duchamp denied to put himself in a situation like Picasso, he
choose science, although it have shown that it could neglect ´the art´and
by that, he was the only one true to the ideals of time.
his´ready-mades´he confuted with full evidence that art is a quality in
the artwork. The art proved to be hierarchy of value in the absence of
universality, a leading principle, or what ever you will.... As he, at the
same time, indicated this, Duchamp wanted toprevail for these shortages by
giving the artwork a new function, it would not only confute the art, but
also made it to be experimental material for the viewers, who should be
forced to move their interest from the incomprehensible status of feeling
to the level of mind. (As we know this later led to that Duchamp himself
lost interest in what he was doing himself - he found less reasons to
occupy himself with the problems of art.)
The results of what
Duchamp achieved would be enough to create a total crisis within world of
art. But the hierarchy survived even Duchamp himself let his meta-art be
incorporated in the collections, where it transformed to convenient
fetishes. The art continued to expand in all possible directions without
passing the Duchampian threshold. One continued to talk about research,
development, sensibility, humanism, as the base for every new direction of
mode gradually were excavated leaving a larger void to be filled and
Article by P. G. Hultén,
"Maskinen" (The Machine) about the exhibition at Museum of Modern Art
During my research, I have found
that the Swedish art context was probably the first to recognise Marcel
Duchamp’s works in a unique perspective without connecting him to
Futurism, Dadaism, and Surrealism.
Instead, Pontus Hultén focused on
Duchamp’s kinetic works while Ulf Linde focused on the "the Large Glass"
and his ready-mades.
In my opinion, without Hultén’s engagement in
the Kinetic art since the 50’s that genre and category would not
"Le Mouvement" at Galerie Denise René, Paris 1955, "Marcel
Duchamp" Bokkonsum, Stockholm 1960 and "Art in Motion", Amsterdam,
Stockholm 1961, and Louisiana, Humlebćck, Denmark, 1961, are all due to
Hultén’s initiative. In addition to his involvement in these shows, is the
MoMA’s exhibition "The Machine" 1968-1969. As director for the new Centre
Pompidou (Beaubourg) in Paris 1977, he arranged the first retrospective
Marcel Duchamp in France and in 1993 at Palazzo Grazzi,
Artikeln fĺr citeras om källan anges
Anders Jörgensen, Malmö, Sweden